Black-box testing and white-box testing are complementary testing methods with different objectives. The first looks at the software system from an end-user perspective while the latter examines the internal structure and workings of the application.

Let's see some of the main differences between the two methods:

Black-box Testing White-box Testing
Tests the end-user functionality of a software system. Tests the internal workings of a software system.
Helps detect defects in the end-user functionality. Helps to detect inefficient code, dead code, and memory leaks.
Testers require no programming experience. Testers are required to know programming as well as code coverage tools.
It is usually done by software testers. It is usually done by software developers.
Usually done at the end when the software system is fully ready Can be done in parallel with software development.
Not suitable for testing algorithms. Good for testing algorithms.
Black-box testing is relatively easy and cheap. White-box testing is relatively difficult and expensive.
Faster to write and execute test cases. Slower to write and execute test cases.